History[ edit ] Although forms of brass have been in use since prehistory ,  its true nature as a copper-zinc alloy was not understood until the post medieval period because the zinc vapor which reacted with copper to make brass was not recognised as a metal. Many have similar tin contents to contemporary bronze artefacts and it is possible that some copper-zinc alloys were accidental and perhaps not even distinguished from copper. There is good archaeological evidence for this process and crucibles used to produce brass by cementation have been found on Roman period sites including Xanten  and Nidda  in Germany , Lyon in France  and at a number of sites in Britain. The fabric of these crucibles is porous, probably designed to prevent a buildup of pressure, and many have small holes in the lids which may be designed to release pressure  or to add additional zinc minerals near the end of the process. Dioscorides mentioned that zinc minerals were used for both the working and finishing of brass, perhaps suggesting secondary additions. These places would remain important centres of brass making throughout the medieval period,  especially Dinant. Brass objects are still collectively known as dinanterie in French. The metal of the early 12th-century Gloucester Candlestick is unusual even by medieval standards in being a mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel , iron, antimony and arsenic with an unusually large amount of silver , ranging from
World Military Collectables aims to provide a range of original, quality militaria items from the major combatant forces Drawing on the combined experience of over 50 years in the world of militaria, WMC will seek to present a regularly updated selection of items from the Victorian era to the Second World War. Predominantly featuring items from the First and Second World Wars , from medals , to uniforms, ephemera to aviation, all backed by a money back guarantee.
We attend many of the major militaria shows in the UK where we would be more than happy to acquire single items or collections similar to those on the site.
Tombac button, a nice dandy button, part of a shoe buckle, an underwear button, Merc, 3/4 of a war nickel and a nice trime. John Vice Part of a j-hook, some kind of coat of arms, brass ring, rivit, and holy cow another trime.
They also lined the sides of Red Square during state funerals and military parades and, when formed into more conventional military units, backed up Red Army troops to ensure they did not retreat, operated as “blocking detachments” and conducted anti-guerrilla operations in re-conquered Soviet territories in WWII. However, other sizable uniformed elements included fire protection troops, key facility and lines of communications’ guards, emergency response, prison guards and a host of supporting administrative, logistical and criminal investigative personnel.
The internal security troops reorganized and renamed the Internal Troops Vnutrennaya Voiska – VV in were arguably the most significant of these forces – forming the main armed security force of post-war USSR. Organized into Army-style units up to division in size and equipped with heavy weapons including tanks, artillery, and armored personnel carriers, the VV’s primary peacetime mission was to safeguard public order and quell serious internal unrest that regular police were unable to handle due to lack of training, manpower or heavy weapons.
Wartime missions included securing occupied areas, policing friendly rear areas in conjunction with the militia and handling prisoners of war. Although ranks and insignia varied between the VV and the other MVD “organs”, all these personnel – with the exception of the militia police – wore the same basic military-style uniforms. The singular exception to this was the regulation that required VV generals to wear Army-style uniforms which I discuss near the bottom of this page. Only the one-piece brass coated steel and enamel star and internal markings date its manufacture probably to post However, it takes a close look to differentiate the difference between these last two colors.
Above the squared-off or spade-shaped fiberboard visor is a normal black oilcloth strap held in place by two stamped Army-style gilt buttons heavily tarnished in this case. All officers and enlisted personnel wore this same cap for both everyday and parade duties. Note the crown is relatively small – both in circumference and in height – which was standard for caps produced before
Metals Used in Coins and Medals
Bill Dancy This story has its roots many years ago, nearly 20 if that seems possible, when I was just starting out with my newfound hobby of metal detecting. But I do remember how exciting it was to have an opportunity to recover pre coins and relics after having hunted only schoolyards, parks, and mid-century house yards, looking for silver dimes and Wheat cents. Little did I know how early and diverse this site would turn out to be until years later, and that was made possible through an unexpected visit from a feisty gal named Isabel.
Low tide and dying marsh grass made recovery of artifacts a little easier. Situated on a marshy saltwater creek not far from the Chesapeake Bay, the site was rumored to be the location of a long-gone, turn-of-the-century home, which is probably what originally garnered my attention. After speaking with the owner and securing his permission to search the property, I was excited to make my first visit.
Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. had buttons and decorative fittings made of tombac, currently, tombac foils are used in arts and crafts for decorative articles, especially as an economic alternative to very.
See link below back to Button Info. Birdcage shank on a c. Uniform type with non-verbal scrolling backmark and “self-shank”. Might be a uniform or early blazer type. An unusual glass uniform button. Thought to be Czech Railway trolley system c. Back shows clear glass, face is silver lustered to imitate metal. This is a “spunback”. Often found on British made buttons and most often steamship lines.
This button is from the Sun Fire Insurance Co. Here’s a backmark found mostly on U. An RMDC is a backmark which consists of raised lettering set in a depressed channel. This is a Scovill backmark, one of the most prolific button manufacturers in the U.
Davidson, Erika Roberts, and Clete Rooney The earliest attempt at an African-American archaeology in the United States that specifically addressed issues pertaining to slave life was conducted at Kingsley Plantation in by Dr. Charles Fairbanks, of the University of Florida Fairbanks click on the images below to see larger illustrations by the authors. However, after a brief 2-week summer field season excavating within Cabin W-1 and to a minor extent, E-1 , Fairbanks never returned to Kingsley and instead continued his exploration of plantation archaeology in the Sea Islands off the coast of Georgia, most notably on St.
Simons Island Ascher and Fairbanks ; Fairbanks His graduate students John Solomon Otto , Theresa Singleton , Sue Mullins Moore , , among others, went on to define plantation archaeology in the s and early s.
Brass Buttons on Sale! (Click here) Military Uniform Buttons The Napoleonic Wars: Great Britain See also our wool and military braid and trimmings section. P- Pewter G- Gold Plated S- Silver Plated B- Brass Plated *All shanks are wire just like the originals.
Of all the services, Naval uniforms changed the least over this period – with caps worn in very similar to those produced at the very end of the USSR except for changes in fabric and use of aluminum stampings. This resistance to change even extended into the late s when officers were still wearing insignia of the Soviet Navy almost a decade after its fall. In contrast to the Army and Air Force – Naval uniforms and caps were relatively color-challenged.
To paraphrase the famous automobile maker Ford when asked why the Model T car didn’t come in bright colors: However, the Navy was the first to introduce visor ornamentation for officers and orange and black colored “Guards” bands did add a nice splash of color to those sailors lucky enough to be assigned to a ship or command so designated. Although the color palette of the Soviet Navy was limited, it did have the widest range of uniform types of any service.
Fortunately for cap collectors – typically the same cap served with multiple uniforms. For uniform aficionados, I shall try to define these as I track down through the cap descriptions. Finally, I am sad to say that Soviet Naval Infantry – while it did get a unique and very sharp uniform in – wore berets, not visor caps, and so are not represented here.
Due to the large number of caps to be described, I have broken down this section into two pages – this one in which I describe officer and petty officer visor caps – and one titled “Beskokirka” in which I discuss the visorless caps worn by Soviet sailors and cadets. A thumbnail image accompanies each cap description. Clicking on that thumbnail will bring up a larger, higher resolution image.
Naval caps were unique in this regard – unlike Army and Air Force caps that experienced numerous changes in emblems and color over this same period.
Hunting for “Coppers”
Element Cr , Atomic No. A hard white metal which is unsuitable for coinage, but which has been used to plate steel coins. An example of such use is the Canadian 5c pieces of and , which were nickel-plated steel with a surface plating of chromium to add wear resistance. A few medals have been struck in chromium. Chromium is an important constituent of the alloy Stainless Steel and is also used in smaller concentrations to impart hardness to steels.
Tombac is a brass alloy famous in numismatic circles for its use by Canada in the emergency 5 cent coins of and , but more generally known for its use in cheap jewellry, especially in the East Indies. Apparently the word derives from the Malay word ‘Tombaga’.
Friday, April 28, Items of Personal Adornment: How Small Objects Make a Big Impact As archaeologists, we are often asked to describe the best or oldest artifact we have found. People want to see the nicest point or the complete pot. But sometimes the small and insignificant objects can also give us important information on the people who have come before us.
Two such objects are buckles and buttons. First we will look at buckles, which were the primary type of fastener for both shoes and clothing through most of the 18th century. Metal buckles were largely produced in England and exported to America to be sold, although a small number of buckles were made by local silversmiths and clockmakers. Buckle frames were made most commonly of copper alloys, tin, and gilded brass; however, they were also produced in silver, gold, iron, blued steel, Sheffield plate, pinchbeck a form of brass resembling gold , and close-plated iron silver foil plated , as well as being embellished with wood, glass accents, gems, and ceramic inlays.
They could be found in a wide range of shapes and sizes, in an almost limitless range of designs and decorations. Iron Shoe Buckle with Scalloped Decoration Photo by PHMC Buckles are commonly found on archaeological sites from the 18th century because they were so widely used by all ranks of society. In addition to being a way to hold together clothing and shoes, buckles were considered to make an important fashion statement.
Social status can be noted in the type of material and extent of decoration on buckles, with more expensive metals and ornate decorations being attributed to the wealthy. Portraits of the time period, which could normally only be commissioned by the rich, show large and ornate buckles on the shoes, knee buckles holding the breeches to silk stockings, and luxurious textiles decorated with expensive buttons.
Bargain hunter: Don Rodgers
The old barn My boyfriend is new to the hobby of metal detecting, and when he expressed an interest in trying it, I was a bit skeptical because his hobby is auto racing, and race cars. I wondered if an E-trac would be able to hold his interest, or compete with the excitement of racing. Despite my skepticism, his enthusiasm seemed genuine, and I was more than willing to spend a day detecting with him, with the hopes he might get some enjoyment from it, and perhaps we could add it to the list of activities that we do together.
Made in the s, this cap illustrates normal features of that period: black napped wool crown, gilded steel buttons, and a three-piece Navy officer’s cockade (wire embroidered leaves, brass or tombac center rim with hot enameled star, with a one-piece aluminum anchor).
The glass contains bubbles. Several bubbles are in the glass. Swirl marks are visible on the surface. Round; large; transparent, coral 6 1c; 7. Numerous bubbles are in the glass. Diameter mm 9 6. Necklace beads those which are large or very large in size are rare, being represented by nine specimens only. The small- and medium-sized wound beads could have been used either for necklaces or embroidery.
The majority of the beads are not diagnostic of any specific time period and cannot be used to establish or corroborate dates for the site. The circular embroidery beads are useless for dating purposes because of their extremely long temporal range. The remaining beads are more distinctive, but a chronological sequence has only been worked out for one of the types. However, while the earliest date is probably relatively accurate, that this type continued to be manufactured and traded until at least the s is suggested by the presence of similar specimens at Fort Berthold II, North Dakota, which was in operation from to Smith