International Gift Customs

Name of Poland The origin of the name “Poland” derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans Polanie that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name “Polanie” itself derives from the early Slavic word “pole” field. In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites Lechici , which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. During this time, the Lusatian culture , spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became particularly prominent. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement now reconstructed as an open-air museum , dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around BC. Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about BC to AD. Also, recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented. Up until the creation of Mieszko’s state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the s.

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Poland became a unified kingdom in the first half of the 10th century, and officially adopted Catholicism in The fragmentation and loss of central authority could not have come at a worse time, with the Mongol Empire invading and wreaking havoc on the realm repeatedly in , , and lastly between Following its reunification, Poland experienced its golden age from the 14th till the 16th century, under the reigns of King Casimir III the Great and the monarchs of the Jagiellonian dynasty, whose rule extended from the Baltic to the Black and Adriatic seas.

After uniting with Lithuania in , the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth became the largest country in Europe.

Poland became a unified kingdom in the first half of the 10th century, and officially adopted Catholicism in The first major settlements were Poznań, Gniezno, Giecz, and Ostrów Lednicki. Gniezno was probably the most important city at that time, as the first king’s coronation, of Bolesław the Brave, took place there in A decade later in , the capital was moved to Kraków.

Nothing whatsoever happened in British history between 3 and 13 September The Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the one most used nowadays. It is named after Pope Gregory Xlll who introduced it in There is a leap year every four years or more precisely, 97 leap years every years. This means that the year corresponds closely with the astronomical year It was based on the solar year, the time it takes for the Earth to rotate around the Sun, and thus was less accurate than the Gregorian Calendar.

The Julian Calendar was All change – “Give us back our 11 days! By doing so, 3 September instantly became 14 September – and as a result, nothing whatsoever happened in British history between 3 and 13 September Many people believed their lives would be shortened. They protested in the streets, demanding “Give us back our 11 days! Calling the Mare As the last of the crops are gathered in, there used to be a lovely ceremony called ‘Calling the Mare’.

The farmers all wanted to prove that they had the best reapers, so they tried to gather in the last of their crops before the neighbouring farmer did. The last sheaf of the harvest was used to make a rough mare shape and it was quickly sent round to any farmers who had not finished gathering his crops.

Culture of Poland

This introduces an interesting but obscure chapter in history, straddling Spain and France and consequently tending to be left by treatments of Spain to French history, and by treatments of France to Spanish history. Not all of it was ultimately retained by Spain, but readily accessible sources don’t seem to show either the difference between the old and new boundaries or what happened to the rulers of Navarre after the annexation — the table at right picks up at that point.

This seems like a grave oversight for the history of France. The history of Navarre is obscure enough that I found the full genealogy only with recourse to a succession of more serious and complete sources. Family trees for the Bourbons, such as given here , almost never go back further than the father, Henry, of Henry IV’s mother Jeanne. Brian Tompsett’s Royal and Noble genealogy originally enabled me to fill in the gaps, but there are some obscurities and questions in the information of both Tompsett and Hay that I had to compare with other sources.

Poland became a unified kingdom in the first half of the 10th century, and officially adopted Catholicism in The first major settlements were Poznań, Gniezno, Giecz, and Ostrów Lednicki. Gniezno was probably the most important city at that time, as the first king’s coronation, of Bolesław the Brave, took place there in A decade later in , the capital was moved to Kraków.

Marriage in Scotland A traditional Scottish Wedding Scotland is a popular place for young English couples to get married since, in Scotland, parents’ permission is not required if both the bride and groom are old enough to legally be married In England it was the case that if either was 16 or 17 then the permission of parents had to be sought. Gretna Green now hosts hundreds of weddings a year and is Scotland’s third most popular tourist attraction.

The bride’s family sends invitations on behalf of the couple to the wedding guests, addressed by hand. The couple may send the invitations themselves, especially if they are more middle-aged. It has become more common in recent times for Save The Date Cards [7] to be used to notify invitees further in advance to allow sufficient notice for arrangements to be made to ensure attendance.

These can be sent up to 6 months before the wedding day. Guests send or deliver wedding gifts to the bride’s family home before the wedding day. Alternatively, the couple may register at a department store and have a list of gifts there. The shop then organizes delivery, usually to the bride’s parents’ house or to the reception venue. A wedding ceremony takes place at a church , register office or possibly another favorite location, such as a hilltop. In this regard Scotland differs significantly from England where only pre-approved public locations may be used for the wedding ceremony.

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Persian wedding tradition, despite its local and regional variations, like many other rituals in Persia goes back to the ancient Zoroastrian tradition. Though the concepts and theory of the marriage have changed drastically by Islamic traditions, the actual ceremonies have remained more or less the same as they were originally in the ancient Zoroastrian culture.

With time it turned into virtually separate and self-governed acre Jewish Town, a model of every East European shtetl, within the limits of the gentile city of Kazimierz. As refugees from all over Europe kept coming to find the safe haven here, its population reached 4, by To it attest also the exhibits of the Museum of Judaism at 24 Szeroka street, in the stately brick building of the Old Synagogue , dating back to the 15th century and rebuilt to Renaissance tastes in the s.

Other interesting synagogues are Isaac’s Synagogue at 25 Jakuba street 17th c. Even today pious Jews keep coming to pray at his grave and the graves of their other great men who were buried here. The cemetery was used from to Its hundreds old tombstones, dating mostly from the Renaissance, as well as its history and surroundings make the Remuh Cemetery one of Europe’s most interesting. Holocaust in Krakow In March the German war administration forced all Krakow Jews to resettle in the newly created ghetto south of the Kazimierz area.

The Nazis liquidated it only two years later on March 13, Memorial to victims of the Krakow ghetto in the form of oversized bronze chairs on the Plac Bohaterow Getta.

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Each month focused on the events and accomplishments in one year starting with Message From the Director It’s a story that began more than ten years ago… A little more than 10 years ago, U. ICE was created based on the recognition that global threats have become more dangerous, and a new approach was needed to ensure the security of the U. Over the years, ICE has achieved truly impressive results in protecting our nation’s borders and enhancing public safety.

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Irregularly circular in shape, it is bordered to the north by the Baltic Sea , to the northeast by Russia and Lithuania , and to the east by Belarus and Ukraine. Its current frontiers, stretching for 2, miles 3, km , were drawn in Except for its southern mountainous regions, the country consists almost entirely of lowlands within the North European Plain. Relief The natural landscape of Poland can be divided broadly into three relief groups:

The name September comes from the old Roman word ‘septem’, which means seven, because in the Roman calendar it was the seventh month. The Anglo-Saxons called it Gerst monath (Barley month), because it was their time when they harvested barley to be made into their favourite drink – barley brew.

The Jesuit Order A military organization posing as a religious order with the primary goal of restoring all worldly power to the papacy. Ultimately, the goal of the spiritual adversary of mankind is to rule the whole world currently by putting the UN over every nation. It also includes the Agenda: This conspiracy is very old, and of course is also known as the “hidden agenda”.

The barbarians swept into the abandoned city of Rome. When it failed to achieve the goals it was designed for, years of “Crusades” were sent against the new invaders of Jerusalem. No matter what they did, the Papacy could not seem to get moved to Jerusalem.

Wedding customs by country

Pregnant women have been known to crave them along with ice cream. Pickles have been around for thousands of years, dating as far back as BC when cucumbers from their native India were pickled in the Tigris Valley. Throughout history pickling was a necessity, as it was the best way to preserve food for a long period of time. As one of the earliest mobile foods, pickles filled the stomachs of hungry sailors and travelers, while also providing families with a source of food during the cold winter months.

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Name of Poland The origin of the name Poland derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans Polanie that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the early Slavic word pole field. In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites Lechici , which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I.

The ethnicity and linguistic affiliation of these groups have been hotly debated; the time and route of the original settlement of Slavic peoples in these regions lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented. The Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko’s state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism.

However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the s. Poland’s first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I , accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in , as the new official religion of his subjects. The bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries.

The significance of the event was documented by Gallus Anonymus in his chronicle. In , Konrad I of Masovia , one of the regional Piast dukes, invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans; a decision that led to centuries of warfare with the Knights.

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